This is how we lost East Thrace-Article of N.G. Michaloliakos
Prompted by the extremely provocative visit of Erdogan in our Homeland and the proposal for the modernization of Lausanne Treaty at 1923, we republish an important article of S.G. of Golden Dawn, N.G. Michaloliakos from the 1001 issue of our newspaper (October 5 2016), which analyzes the strategic defeat of Greece with this Treaty.
Reinforced geopolitically by repression of the coup and the restoration of his relations with Russia and USA, the sultan of Ottomans, Tayyip Erdoğan, proceeded to provocative statements against the Greek sovereignty at Aegean, without hiding his aspirations for expansion towards Greece. More precisely he stated at 27th conference of the heads of municipalities in Ankara:
“The 15th of July is the second war for the independence of the Turkish nation. They threatened us at Sevres at 1920 and they made us accept the Lausanne Treaty at 1923. Some tried to deceive us by presenting the Lausanne Treaty as a victory. At Lausanne, we gave away islands, which are really close to Turkey. All those who participated at the meetings at Lausanne failed to match at the circumstances. Today we experience the consequences of their weakness”.
Turkey was victorious at Lausanne
Of course, in reality, Turkey was victorious at the Lausanne Treaty, which was violated before by Turkey in specific situations. Few know that at April of 1923, only seven months after the catastrophe, Greek Army was arraying Evros River an army consisted of ten efficient Divisions, nine division of infantry and one of cavalry. There were also two units of artillery. The army at Evros was aiming through Lausanne Treaty at East Thrace, while our Navy was able to liberate the two Greek islands, Imbros and Tenedos.
The Turkish in Lausanne were irreconcilable and they had conflicts with the three great powers of that era, which would decide for this treaty. They had conflict with England regarding Mosul, a region rich in oil fields, which still is in the center of the great powers, in the war at Middle East. Mussolini in Italy had also conflicted with Turkey and he had said to minister of Foreign Affairs of Greece Alexandris that Greece should demand the East Thrace! And they also conflicted with France concerning economic affairs and war reparations.
East Thrace is lost
This procedure that ended in the Lausanne Treaty, a diplomatic victory for Turkey and a defeat for Greece, took its final form at May of 1923. At May 22, the government of Greece telegraphs to Eleftherios Venizelos to wait until May 26 and in case of disagreement. To order the march of the army towards East Thrace and the directions of Navy to Dardanelles. More precisely, this is the telegraph of the government: “The government having examined all the views and after consulting the Leader of the Army, even in the case that Navy will not proceed o Dardanelles, the land Divisions should march ahead”. (Daphnes, Greece between two wars, p. 46)
At the morning of the 26th of May, Eleftherios Venizelos demands to speak in the conference, but the English representative, demands the speech of the Turkish representative Ismet. Well, Ismet proposes the offer of East Thrace at Turkey and Venizelos agrees! We should note that Kemal had no army, nor navy at East Thrace, were the majority of people were Greeks. IN simple words, we offered East Thrace to Turkey with not a single reaction, to the name of English, who took of course Mosul.
Gregorios Daphnes at this book writes that Eleftherios Venizelos was not informed about this made in England “solution”. So, being afraid of reactions, he did not notify the Greek Government and he presented to our country a fait accompli.
A march that never happened…
There were indeed reactions. Not only the Commander of the Army in Evros, Theodoros Pagkalos, but also the Commander of the Navy, Chatzikyriakos, react and send the following telegraph: “Accepting, in the name of Greece, this solution that violated the order of the minister of Foreign Affairs, the Commanders of Army and Navy, express their chagrin and declare they have lost their trust to the representation of Greece. Pagkalos, Chatzikyriakos”.
In fact, the initial decision of Pagkalos and Chatzikyriakos was to order the next day the march and the occupation of East Thrace. In the end, under extreme pressure, the Greek Army and Navy do not march, serving perfectly the English interests, since in order to take Mosul, they “sacrifice” the East Thrace. Every reader of this article can easily understand that Greece would be a lot different geopolitically, strategically and demographically, with the East Thrace, Imbros and Tenedos, since Greece would control Dardanelles.
Though, let us return to the affairs concerning the Lausanne Treaty. According to this Treaty, there would be Greek autonomous communities in Imbros and Tenedos, while hundreds thousands of Greeks would remain at Constantinople. However, the Turkish State at the expense of Greek population, extirpated our Greek brothers from Imbros and Tenedos and from Constantinople, where nowadays reside only three thousands of Greeks. The recent statement of Tayyip Erdogan, which is more unjust than the Lausanne Treaty and disputes the Greek sovereignty at the islands of Aegean, should not surprise anyone.
It seems that the tale of the Greco-Turkish “friendship”, which emerged after World War II in the name of NATO, still prevails. This fairy tale should end and all the Greeks united should realize that Turkey wants our land, our sea. So, we should at least realize this threat and not forget this harsh reality, either due to our submission to USA, or due to a leftist pacifism.
Nikolaos G. Michaloliakos
Secretary General of People’s Association-Golden Dawn